Differences Between Tight and Loose Cultures: A 33-Nation Study

Michele Gelfand , Paweł Boski


With data from 33 nations, we illustrate the differences between cultures that are tight (have many strong norms and a low tolerance of deviant behavior) versus loose (have weak social norms and a high tolerance of deviant behavior). Tightness-looseness is part of a complex, loosely integrated multilevel system that comprises distal ecological and historical threats (e.g., high population density, resource scarcity, a history of territorial conflict, and disease and environmental threats), broad versus narrow socialization in societal institutions (e.g., autocracy, media regulations), the strength of everyday recurring situations, and micro-level psychological affordances (e.g., prevention self-guides, high regulatory strength, need for structure). This research advances knowledge that can foster cross-cultural understanding in a world of increasing global interdependence and has implications for modeling cultural change.
Author Michele Gelfand
Michele Gelfand,,
, Paweł Boski (Wydział Psychologii)
Paweł Boski,,
- Wydział Psychologii
Total number of authors45
Journal seriesScience, ISSN 0036-8075, (A 50 pkt)
Issue year2011
Publication size in sheets0.5
URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21617077
Languageen angielski
Gelfand-Science-Tightness-Looseness.pdf of 14-09-2015
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Score (nominal)50
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Dorobek Naukowy - Preview URLhttp://dn.swps.edu.pl/Podglad.aspx?WpisID=6127
Dorobek Naukowy - Approve URLhttp://dn.swps.edu.pl/Biuro/ZatwierdzanieWpisu.aspx?WpisID=6127
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* presented citation count is obtained through Internet information analysis and it is close to the number calculated by the Publish or Perish system.
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