On the intentional control of conditioned evaluative responses
Robert Balas , Bertram Gawronski
AbstractThe evaluative conditioning (EC) effect is defined as a change in the evaluation of a conditioned stimulus (CS) due to its pairing with a valenced unconditioned stimulus (US). The current research investigated the controllability of EC effects by asking participants to either promote or prevent the influence of CS–US pairings before they provided evaluative ratings of the CS. Experiment 1 showed that instructions to maximize or minimize the influence of CS–US pairings moderated EC effects in line with task instructions. However, this moderation was observed only when participants were able to recall the valence of the US that had been paired with a given CS. When participants failed to remember the valence of the US, significant EC effects emerged regardless of control instructions. Experiment 2 tested whether the influence of CS–US pairings on CS evaluations can be intentionally reversed. The results showed that reversal instructions led to a reverse EC effect when participants were able to recall the valence of the US that had been paired with a given CS, but not when they were unable to recall the valence of the US. Taken together, these results suggest that US valence memory is a necessary precondition for controlling the expression of a conditioned evaluative response, but it is not a necessary precondition for the emergence of EC effects per se.
|Journal series||Learning and Motivation, ISSN 0023-9690, (C 25 pkt)|
|Keywords in English||Attitude expression, Contingency memory, Evaluative conditioning, Judgmental correction|
|ASJC Classification||; ; ; ;|
|Publication indicators||: 2014 = 0.742; : 2012 = 0.673 (2) - 2012=0.752 (5)|
|Dorobek Naukowy - Preview URL||http://dn.swps.edu.pl/Podglad.aspx?WpisID=8858|
|Dorobek Naukowy - Approve URL||http://dn.swps.edu.pl/Biuro/ZatwierdzanieWpisu.aspx?WpisID=8858|
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