Striving for consistency shapes emotional responses to others’ outcomes

Agnieszka Pietraszkiewicz , Bogdan Wojciszke

Abstract

Based on the balance theory (Heider, 1958), we hypothesized that emotions (i.e., schadenfreude, resentment, joy and sorrow) induced by other person’s outcomes function as responses restoring balance within cognitive units consisting of the perceiver, other persons and their outcomes. As a consequence, emotional reactions towards others’ outcomes depend on the perceiver’s attitudes in such a way that outcomes of a well-liked person rise congruous responses (sorrow after failure and joy after success), while outcomes of a disliked other lead to incongruous responses (schadenfreude after failure and resentment after success). Our participants recalled a situation from their past in which somebody they liked or disliked had succeed or failed. Additionally, we manipulated whether the outcome referred to a domain where participants’ self-interest was involved or not. We analyzed the participants’ average emotional state as well as specific emotions induced by the recalled events. Consistently with expectations we found that balancing principles played a major role in shaping emotional responses to successes and failures of person who were well-liked or disliked.   Keywords: Balance,Schadenfreude, Resentment, Self-interest, Self-esteem
Author Agnieszka Pietraszkiewicz (Wydział Zamiejscowy w Sopocie)
Agnieszka Pietraszkiewicz,,
- Wydział Zamiejscowy w Sopocie
, Bogdan Wojciszke (Wydział Zamiejscowy w Sopocie)
Bogdan Wojciszke,,
- Wydział Zamiejscowy w Sopocie
Journal seriesPolish Psychological Bulletin, ISSN 0079-2993, e-ISSN 1641-7844, (B 15 pkt)
Issue year2014
Vol45
No3
Pages296-305
Publication size in sheets0.5
ASJC Classification3200 General Psychology
Abstract in PolishBased on the balance theory (Heider, 1958), we hypothesized that emotions (i.e., schadenfreude, resentment, joy and sorrow) induced by other person’s outcomes function as responses restoring balance within cognitive units consisting of the perceiver, other persons and their outcomes. As a consequence, emotional reactions towards others’ outcomes depend on the perceiver’s attitudes in such a way that outcomes of a well-liked person rise congruous responses (sorrow after failure and joy after success), while outcomes of a disliked other lead to incongruous responses (schadenfreude after failure and resentment after success). Our participants recalled a situation from their past in which somebody they liked or disliked had succeed or failed. Additionally, we manipulated whether the outcome referred to a domain where participants’ self-interest was involved or not. We analyzed the participants’ average emotional state as well as specific emotions induced by the recalled events. Consistently with expectations we found that balancing principles played a major role in shaping emotional responses to successes and failures of person who were well-liked or disliked.   Keywords: Balance,Schadenfreude, Resentment, Self-interest, Self-esteem
DOIDOI:10.2478/ppb-2014-0036
Languageen angielski
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Pietraszkiewicz-Wojciszke-2014-PPB.pdf of 14-09-2015
522.87 KB
Score (nominal)15
Publication indicators Scopus SNIP (Source Normalised Impact per Paper): 2014 = 0.148
Citation count*2 (2020-07-03)
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Dorobek Naukowy - Preview URLhttp://dn.swps.edu.pl/Podglad.aspx?WpisID=15544
Dorobek Naukowy - Approve URLhttp://dn.swps.edu.pl/Biuro/ZatwierdzanieWpisu.aspx?WpisID=15544
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