An experimental study of the influence of limited time horizon on positivity effects among young adults using eye-tracking

Marzena Cypryańska , Izabela Krejtz , Aleksandra Jaskółowska , Alicja Kulawik , Aleksandra Żukowska , Agnieszka Golec , Jakub Niewiarowski , John Nezlek


Compared to younger adults, older adults attend more to positive stimuli, a positivity effect. Older adults have limited time horizons, and they focus on maintaining positive affect, whereas younger adults have unlimited time horizons, and they focus on acquiring knowledge and developing skills. Time horizons were manipulated by asking participants (66 young adults, M age = 20.5 yr., SD = 1.2) to think that their lives would end in three years. Some participants focused on what they would do in these three years (life focus), whereas others focused on the fact that they would die in three years (death focus). Attentional biases to facial expressions of happiness, sadness, fear, anger, and disgust were measured. Participants viewed 20 slides including pairings of a happy face with each of the negative emotions. The dependent measure was the relative attention paid to the faces on each slide. Participants in the experimental conditions exhibited a positivity effect compared to participants in the control condition, although some results suggested that this effect was weaker in the death focus condition than in the life focus condition.
Author Marzena Cypryańska (Wydział Psychologii)
Marzena Cypryańska,,
- Wydział Psychologii
, Izabela Krejtz (Wydział Psychologii)
Izabela Krejtz,,
- Wydział Psychologii
, Aleksandra Jaskółowska (WP)
Aleksandra Jaskółowska,,
- Faculty of Psychology
, Alicja Kulawik
Alicja Kulawik,,
, Aleksandra Żukowska
Aleksandra Żukowska,,
, Agnieszka Golec (Wydział Zamiejscowy w Poznaniu)
Agnieszka Golec,,
- Wydział Zamiejscowy w Poznaniu
, Jakub Niewiarowski (Wydział Psychologii)
Jakub Niewiarowski,,
- Wydział Psychologii
, John Nezlek (Wydział Zamiejscowy w Poznaniu)
John Nezlek,,
- Wydział Zamiejscowy w Poznaniu
Journal seriesPsychological Reports, ISSN 0033-2941, (A 15 pkt)
Issue year2014
Publication size in sheets0.7
ASJC Classification3200 General Psychology
Languageen angielski
2014-Psy-Reports.pdf of 14-09-2015
65.08 KB
paper-time-perspective-JSP-january-2013.pdf 111.75 KB
Score (nominal)15
Publication indicators Scopus SNIP (Source Normalised Impact per Paper): 2014 = 0.47; WoS Impact Factor: 2014 = 0.56 (2) - 2014=0.592 (5)
Citation count*4 (2021-04-10)
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