Does it pay to break male gender stereotypes in advertising? A comparison of advertisement effectiveness between the United Kingdom, Poland and South Africa

Magdalena Zawisza , Russell Luyt , Anna Maria Zawadzka , Jacek Buczny


Advertisers shy away from using non-traditional (vs. traditional) male gender portrayals even though theory suggests they may be more effective cross-nationally. Two main hypotheses were tested cross-nationally for the first time. H1: ‘paternalistic’ male stereotypes (e.g. Househusband) would be more effective than ‘envious’ male stereotypes (e.g. Businessman) across countries confirming the stereotype content model (SCM). H2: the match between initial male gender role attitudes and advertisement type would increase advertisement effectiveness only in countries with relatively low egalitarian norms (i.e. Poland and South Africa). A cross-national study was conducted through the use of student samples following a 3(country: United Kingdom, Poland and South Africa) × 2(advertisement type) × (gender attitude) mixed design (N = 373). A three-way multivariate analysis of variance showed support for H1 and partial support for H2 (i.e. the second hypothesis held on purchase intent and for South Africa). The study provides evidence for the cross-national applicability of the SCM to advertising and the limited predictive value of gender attitudes for purchase intent depending on country. Thus, contrary to mainstream advertising practices, breaking male gender stereotypes does appear to pay cross-nationally. Theoretical and practical implications alongside the potential for change in practices are discussed.
Author Magdalena Zawisza
Magdalena Zawisza,,
, Russell Luyt
Russell Luyt,,
, Anna Maria Zawadzka
Anna Maria Zawadzka,,
, Jacek Buczny (Wydział Zamiejscowy w Sopocie)
Jacek Buczny,,
- Wydział Zamiejscowy w Sopocie
Journal seriesJournal of Gender Studies, ISSN 0958-9236, (A 25 pkt)
Issue year2018
Publication size in sheets0.8
Keywords in EnglishAdvertising, gender attitudes, gender portrayal, gender stereotypes, sex roles, cross-cultural,
ASJC Classification3301 Social Sciences (miscellaneous); 1201 Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous); 3318 Gender Studies
Languageen angielski
does it pay_2016.jpg 899.26 KB
does it pay_2016_ośw.jpg 412.46 KB
Score (nominal)25
Score sourcejournalList
Publication indicators Scopus SNIP (Source Normalised Impact per Paper): 2017 = 1.13; WoS Impact Factor: 2017 = 0.918 (2) - 2017=1.193 (5)
Citation count*6 (2021-01-17)
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