Parental social-cognitive correlates of preschoolers’ oral hygiene behavior: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Stephanie R. Smith , Jeroen Kroon , Ralf Schwarzer , Kyra Hamilton


Background Regular and consistent parental involvement in children's oral hygiene practices is crucial to prevent oral diseases in young children. This emphasizes the need for interventions targeting parental-supervised oral hygiene behavior. To inform the design of future interventions, this meta-analysis aimed to identify the parental social-cognitive factors associated with oral hygiene behavior of preschoolers. Method Five bibliographic databases were searched. A study was eligible for inclusion when it reported an association between a parental social-cognitive factor and an oral hygiene behavior in the targeted age cohort. Meta-analyses were performed when there were at least four independent effect sizes (k > 3). Results Of the 5945 records identified, 25 studies contained eligible data to be included in four meta-analyses: attitude (k = 12); self-efficacy (k = 12); intention (k = 6), and sense of coherence (k = 5). The results showed that greater frequency of preschoolers’ oral hygiene behavior is significantly associated with parental attitudes (r+ = 0.18), self-efficacy (r+ = 0.34), and intention (r+ = 0.29), and not significantly associated with parental sense of coherence (r+ = 0.08). Conclusion Self-efficacy, attitudes, and intention were identified as significant correlates of parental-supervised oral hygiene behavior. However, this is a limited evidence base and many social-cognitive factors, such as self-regulatory processes including planning and action control, have yet to be explored in this context. The significant social-cognitive correlates identified in this study, as well as potential other self-regulatory factors, should be targeted in future intervention studies aimed at improving this important preventive behavior.
Author Stephanie R. Smith
Stephanie R. Smith,,
, Jeroen Kroon
Jeroen Kroon,,
, Ralf Schwarzer (Filia we Wrocławiu / Wydział Psychologii we Wrocławiu)
Ralf Schwarzer,,
- Wydział Psychologii we Wrocławiu
, Kyra Hamilton
Kyra Hamilton,,
Journal seriesSocial Science & Medicine, [Social Science and Medicine, Social Science & Medicine], ISSN 0277-9536, (N/A 140 pkt)
Issue year2020
Publication size in sheets0.3
Article number113322
Keywords in EnglishOral hygiene; Toothbrushing; Parents; Young children; Social-cognition; Preschoolers
ASJC Classification1207 History and Philosophy of Science; 3306 Health(social science)
Languageen angielski
Parental_tekst.pdf 2.89 MB
PublicationStatementEnglish2020Schwarzer.pdf 215.11 KB
Score (nominal)140
Score sourcejournalList
Publication indicators Scopus SNIP (Source Normalised Impact per Paper): 2016 = 1.737; WoS Impact Factor: 2018 = 3.087 (2) - 2018=4.041 (5)
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