Parents’ Planning for Physical Activity for their Pre-School Aged Children: The Role of Psycho-Social Mediators and Moderators

Kyra Hamilton , Ralf Schwarzer


Despite the childhood benefits gained from engaging in adequate physical activity, Australian preschool-aged children are reported to spend little time being physically active. Parental planning is important to engaging preschool-aged children in physical activity. Behavioral barriers, normative support, and self-efficacy have been identified as key determinants of parental decision making. However, the interplay among these factors is not well understood. The aim of this study was to examine the role of these psycho-social variables on parents’ planning and behavior for their preschool-aged children’s physical activity. A survey at two points in time was conducted in 208 Australian parents (n  = 139 mothers, M age = 36.43 years, SD = 5.04; n = 69 fathers, M age = 36.33 years, SD = 6.5) of children aged between 2 and 5 years. A conditional process analysis was conducted that integrates mediation and moderation analyses. The results showed that planning and behavioral barriers predicted behavior, with a moderation effect also identified; more planning helped compensate for barriers. Normative support predicted both planning and behavior. In addition, an interaction between normative support and self-efficacy emerged. Parents with high self-efficacy engaged in high levels of planning, independent of normative support. Low self-efficacy with low normative support resulted in the lowest amount of planning; however, in the absence of normative support a high level of self-efficacy could compensate for it. Current findings provide avenues for future research to develop interventions to test the efficacy of these mechanisms in promoting parents’ ability to ensure preschool-aged children are active.
Author Kyra Hamilton
Kyra Hamilton,,
, Ralf Schwarzer (Filia we Wrocławiu / II Wydział Psychologii we Wrocławiu)
Ralf Schwarzer,,
- II Wydział Psychologii we Wrocławiu
Journal seriesJournal of Child and Family Studies, ISSN 1062-1024, e-ISSN 1573-2843, (A 25 pkt)
Issue year2018
Publication size in sheets0.5
Keywords in EnglishSelf-efficacy Normative support Planning Social cognitive theory Exercise Children
ASJC Classification3319 Life-span and Life-course Studies; 3204 Developmental and Educational Psychology
Languageen angielski
Parents' planning_tekst.pdf 962.56 KB
Additional file
Oświadczenie_publ_Schwarzer_DIGsigned.pdf 275.57 KB
Score (nominal)25
Score sourcejournalList
Publication indicators Scopus SNIP (Source Normalised Impact per Paper): 2017 = 0.91; WoS Impact Factor: 2017 = 1.588 (2) - 2017=1.91 (5)
Citation count*
Share Share

Get link to the record

* presented citation count is obtained through Internet information analysis and it is close to the number calculated by the Publish or Perish system.
Are you sure?