Color Trails Test: A New Set of Data on Cognitive Flexibility and Processing Speed in Schizophrenia

Ernest Tyburski , Ewa Karabanowicz , Monika Mak , Zofia Lebiecka , Agnieszka Samochowiec , Justyna Pełka-Wysiecka , Leszek Sagan , Jerzy Samochowiec


Background: Although schizophrenia patients have been reported to manifest deficits in cognitive flexibility and lower processing speed (measured with i.a., the Color Trails Test, CTT), there still remain a few matters that require further investigation. We have therefore formulated three research aims: 1) to examine the factor structure of CTT in schizophrenia patients and healthy controls, 2) to compare different CTT performance measures in the two groups, 3) to investigate the relationship between these measures and selected psychopathological symptoms in the patient group. Methods: Sixty-seven patients with paranoid schizophrenia and 67 healthy controls, matched for gender, age, number of years of education, and overall cognitive functioning underwent assessment of cognitive flexibility and processing speed with the CTT. Results: Factor analysis of CTT variables based on the principal component method revealed a four-factor solution in both groups. Compared with healthy controls, the patients performed poorer on CTT 1 time, CTT 2 time, 2-1 difference, prompts in CTT 2, and had higher regression factor scores for Factor 1 (reflecting the slower speed of perceptual tracking). Furthermore, significant links were found between some CTT measures, and negative and disorganization symptoms. Conclusions: Schizophrenia patients exhibit problems with speed of perceptual tracking and executive processes dependent on processing speed. Our results may be useful for the development of neuropsychological diagnostic methods for schizophrenia patients. It seems that, compared to other CTT indices, CTT 1 time, CTT 2 time, and 2-1 difference are more appropriate measures of cognitive performance in schizophrenia patients.
Author Ernest Tyburski (Wydział Psychologii i Prawa w Poznaniu)
Ernest Tyburski,,
- Wydział Psychologii i Prawa w Poznaniu
, Ewa Karabanowicz
Ewa Karabanowicz,,
, Monika Mak
Monika Mak,,
, Zofia Lebiecka
Zofia Lebiecka,,
, Agnieszka Samochowiec
Agnieszka Samochowiec,,
, Justyna Pełka-Wysiecka
Justyna Pełka-Wysiecka,,
, Leszek Sagan
Leszek Sagan,,
, Jerzy Samochowiec
Jerzy Samochowiec,,
Journal seriesFrontiers in Psychiatry, ISSN 1664-0640, (N/A 100 pkt)
Issue year2020
Publication size in sheets0.5
Article number521
Keywords in Englishcognitive flexibility, processing speed, executive functions, cognitive functions, schizophrenia
ASJC Classification2738 Psychiatry and Mental health
Languageen angielski
Artykuł 4.pdf 316.49 KB
Oświadczenie 4.pdf 28.65 KB
Score (nominal)100
Score sourcejournalList
Publication indicators Scopus SNIP (Source Normalised Impact per Paper): 2018 = 0.991; WoS Impact Factor: 2018 = 3.161 (2)
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