Associations of temporal and energetic characteristics of behavior with depressive symptoms: A population-based longitudinal study within Strelau's Regulative Theory of Temperament
T. Hintsa , K. Wesolowska , M. Elovainio , Jan Strelau , L. Pulkki-Råback , L. Keltikangas-Järvinen
AbstractAbstractBackground Individual dispositions have previously been associated with increased risk for depressive symptoms. The direction of the association has been found to be sometimes reciprocal. We examined whether temperament traits are associated with depressive symptoms and whether depressive symptoms contribute to changes in temperament. Methods Participants (n=674–811) were from a population-based Young Finns Study. Temperament was assessed by a Finnish version of the Formal Characteristics of Behavior – Temperament Inventory. Depressive symptoms were assessed with modified BDI (mBDI) in 1997, 2001, 2007 and 2012, and BDI-II in 2012. Results Higher perseveration and emotional reactivity were associated with higher level of depressive symptoms, and higher endurance was associated with lower level of depressive symptoms in 2007 and 2012. These associations were independent of several potential confounders and baseline depressive symptoms. The results of cross-lagged structural equation modeling showed that the associations between temperament and depressive symptoms were reciprocal: briskness, endurance and activity decreased the risk for depressive symptoms while depressive symptoms decreased the level of these characteristics. Perseveration, emotional reactivity and depressive symptoms reinforced each other over time. Limitations The depressive symptoms scales we used are not meant for measuring clinically diagnosed depression. The relationships between temperament traits and depressive symptoms were not strong enough to provide a clinical basis for guiding treatment. Conclusions Lower perseveration, lower emotional reactivity and higher endurance seem to be health protective temperament characteristics that reduce the risk for depressive symptoms. The reciprocal associations between temperament and depressive symptoms imply mutual health protective and health declining effects. Clinical relevance of the study is that enhancing positive loops and self-concept, and supporting individual stress management might be helpful in prevention of depressive symptoms.
|Journal series||Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, (A 35 pkt)|
|Pages||196 - 204|
|Publication size in sheets||0.5|
|Keywords in English||Cross-lagged modeling|
|Publication indicators||: 2016 = 1.362; : 2016 = 3.432 (2) - 2016=3.845 (5)|
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