The dissociations of confidence from accuracy in forced-choice recognition judgments

Maciej Hanczakowski , Ewa Butowska , C. Philip Beaman , Dylan M. Jones , Katarzyna Zawadzka


Judgment of confidence in memory is likely to track memory accuracy if those factors shaping accuracy also shape confidence. In recognition memory, accuracy is determined by the relative level of evidence present for the target and that supporting the lures. As the discrepancy between targets and lures increases, so does the likelihood of correct responding. In contrast, this study shows that confidence can instead depend on the absolute evidence supporting the chosen target rather than the balance of evidence between targets and lures. In four experiments, using different types of forced-choice recognition tests, we demonstrate that generally manipulating the strength of evidence supporting targets affects confidence judgments but that varying the strength of evidence supporting lures creates robust confidence-accuracy dissociations, changing accuracy while not affecting confidence. Together, these data support an absolute account of confidence in forced-choice recognition and demonstrate that confidence-accuracy dissociations across recognition conditions are likely to be ubiquitous.
Author Maciej Hanczakowski (Wydział Psychologii w Warszawie)
Maciej Hanczakowski,,
- Wydział Psychologii w Warszawie
, Ewa Butowska (USSH)
Ewa Butowska,,
- SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities
, C. Philip Beaman
C. Philip Beaman,,
, Dylan M. Jones
Dylan M. Jones,,
, Katarzyna Zawadzka (Wydział Psychologii w Warszawie)
Katarzyna Zawadzka,,
- Wydział Psychologii w Warszawie
Journal seriesJournal of Memory and Language, ISSN 0749-596X, e-ISSN 1096-0821, (N/A 140 pkt)
Issue year2021
Publication size in sheets0.7
Keywords in EnglishConfidence Metacognition Forced-choice recognition Calibration
ASJC Classification1203 Language and Linguistics; 3205 Experimental and Cognitive Psychology; 3206 Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology; 3310 Linguistics and Language; 1702 Artificial Intelligence
Languageen angielski
The dissociations of confidence.pdf 701.8 KB
Additional file
osw_The dissociations.pdf 231.61 KB
osw_Butowska.jpg 2.17 MB
osw_Hanczakowski_the dissociations.pdf 247.74 KB
Score (nominal)140
Score sourcejournalList
Publication indicators Scopus SNIP (Source Normalised Impact per Paper): 2018 = 1.905; WoS Impact Factor: 2018 = 3.858 (2) - 2018=5.763 (5)
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