Children's creation of algorithms: simulations and gestures
Monica Bucciarelli , Robert Mackiewicz , Sangeet S. Khemlani , Philip N. Johnson-Laird
AbstractExperiments showed that children are able to create algorithms, that is, sequences of operations that solve problems, and that their gestures help them to do so. The theory of mental models, which is implemented in a computer program, postulates that the creation of algorithms depends on mental simulations that unfold in time. Gestures are outward signs of moves and they help the process. We tested 10-year-old children, because they can plan, and because they gesture more than adults. They were able to rearrange the order of 6 cars in a train (using a siding), and the difficulty of the task depended on the number of moves in minimal solutions (Experiment 1). They were also able to devise informal algorithms to rearrange the order of cars when they were not allowed to move the cars, and the difficulty of the task depended on the complexity of the algorithms (Experiment 2). When children were prevented from gesturing as they formulated algorithms, the accuracy of their algorithms declined by 13% (Experiment 3). We discuss the implications of these results.
|Journal series||Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, (A 20 pkt)|
|Publication size in sheets||1.05|
|Keywords in English||algorithmic reasoning; gestures; mental simulation; mental models|
|Project||-. Project leader: Mackiewicz Robert,
, application date 16-09-2014, start date 14-04-2014, end date 13-04-2017, 2014/14/M/HS6/00916, Implemented
|Publication indicators||: 2016 = 0.874; : 2016 = 1.503 (2) - 2016=1.766 (5)|
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